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This is part two of a 2013 global survey of community currencies, grassroots credit clearing and regional mutual aid systems. These are creative attempts to fill a role that the current monopoly system of money that is created by banks not only fails to fill but often undermines.
Bernard Lietaer is a former central banker and fund manager turned university professor and the Irish journalist Jacqui Dunne is CEO of an enterprise that assists entrepreneurs to restore the earth. Published in 2013 their book, Rethinking Money, is the most up to date international overview over complementary currencies and alternative systems of credit.
The real live projects that they describe, fall roughly into two categories, exchange systems that renew social bonds while helping individuals and neighborhoods to manage their needs for help, food, local trade, health care and education; and larger regional credit clearing and exchange systems that can actually create permanent jobs and substantial infrastructure like farms, gardens and parks, housing and public utilities.